A healthy person has 2 kidneys in his body.

They are located just behind our abdomen, on both sides of the spine, below the lowest rib. 

Each kidney is the size of a human fist.

An average of 5 liters of blood circulates in our body per day.

 Our kidneys filter this amount of blood about 40 times each day. For this reason, our kidneys have a very important function in the body, as they filter and clean this amount of blood.

If your kidneys are  starting to lose their function, you may have chronic kidney disease . Usually it occurs slowly. 

 Chronic kidney disease is often diagnosed later. It affects more people than you can imagine.


Did You Know ?

  • There are approximately 850 million kidney patients worldwide, one in 10 adults.


  • 90% of patients are unaware of their disease.


  • The two most common causes of chronic kidney disease are diabetes and high blood pressure.


  • If more than 85-90% of kidney function is lost, it is the last stage. These patients require dialysis and kidney transplant treatments.


  • Approximately 3 million patients in the world continue their lives with dialysis and kidney transplantation.


  • The risk of death in patients with chronic kidney disease is 10-20 times higher than in healthy people. About 2.5 million people die each year due to kidney disease.


  • Chronic kidney disease, especially if detected early, can be prevented or its progress to the last stages can be slowed down.


Acute – Chronic Kidney Failure

There are two types of kidney failure :

1.Acute Kidney Failure

Acute renal failure is the sudden cessation of the filtration system (GFR) in the kidney.

 This situation increases the level of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and electrolytes.

 It usually happens within hours or days. It is reversible, that is, with the intervention, the kidneys heal and regain their function.

Acute kidney failure is usually temporary, so it is also called acute kidney injury.


2.Chronic Kidney Failure

Unlike acute kidney injury, chronic kidney failure results in permanent deterioration of the kidneys. 

Your kidneys filter waste and excess fluid from your blood and remove it as urine. In advanced chronic kidney disease, 

However, these events cannot occur at a sufficient level. You have dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes, and waste in your body.

This problem may start out mild. It can then take you to dialysis or transplant.


Symptoms of Acute Kidney Failure 

  • Reduced urine output
  • Swollen legs, ankles and feet
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • High blood pressure
  • Confusion


Symptoms of Chronic Kidney Failure :

  • Abnormal blood and urine tests
  • Swelling in the face , hands and feet
  • Headaches
  • High blood pressure


Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease

In chronic kidney disease, the kidneys usually do not suddenly lose their function. Kidney disease progresses slowly. 

If detected early, various medications and lifestyle changes can help slow or prevent the progression of kidney disease.


Doctors determine the stage of kidney disease by examining the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is an output determined by a person’s age, gender, and serum creatinine level.


 A waste product from muscle activity, creatinine is an important indicator of what level the kidneys are working at. 


When the kidneys are working well, they remove more creatinine from the blood, but as they lose their functions, the creatinine level in the blood rises accordingly.


  • Stage 1 High GFR (GFR > 90 mL/min)
  • Mild kidney damage
  • Stage 2 Mild (GFR = 60-89 mL/min)
  • Mild loss of kidney function
  • Stage 3A-3B Moderate (GFR = 30-59 mL/min)
  • Mild to severe loss of kidney function


  • Stage 4 Severe (GFR = 15-29 mL/min)
  • Severe loss of kidney function
  • Stage 5 End Stage (GFR <15 mL/min)
  • Kidney failure or close to failure


When to get tested for Chronic Kidney Disease?

If you have symptoms such as:

  • weight loss – poor appetite
  • swollen ankles, feet or hands
  • shortness of breath
  • tiredness
  • blood in your pee (urine)
  • peeing more than usual, particularly at night

There may be no symptoms in the early stages, so people at high risk should have regular testing.


Kidney Transplant

  • A kidney transplant is the placement of a healthy kidney in your body to perform functions that your kidneys can no longer do.


  • Transplantation can be taken from the patient’s surviving relatives or people who have brain death.


  • Dialysis is not a method that treats the kidneys. A long-term life and treatment can only be achieved with transplantation.


  • Dialysis is a supportive process that can happen until the kidney transplant. A much longer and more comfortable life is possible with kidney transplantation.


  • Almost all of the patients with living donor kidney transplantation lead a life away from dialysis in the first year. Most of these patients preserve their kidneys for more than 10-15 years.


  • In cadaveric kidney transplants, patients may have to go on dialysis again later.


  • While the success rate in cadaver transplants is 80%, it is 95% in live kidney transplants.


  • You can eat and drink more, but you must follow a healthy diet. Successful transplant can allow you to return to the life you had before your kidney disease. Studies show that people with kidney transplants live longer than those on dialysis.


References :

  1. https://www.davita.com/education/kidney-disease/stages 


  1. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/kidney-disease/diagnosis/ 


  1.  https://www.medinova.com.tr/bobreklerimiz-hakkinda-bunlari-biliyor-muydunuz/


  1. https://www.freseniuskidneycare.com/kidney-disease/stages  


  1. https://www.homage.com.my/health/kidney-failure/